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Mortgage Glossary Of Terms

Mortgage Glossary Of Terms

Our friendly mortgage professionals will help you find the mortgage best fit for you and will be along your side every step of the way. To make understanding the terms of your mortgage easier, we have complied a list of commonly used terms.

A-E

  • A mortgage in which your interest rate and monthly payments may change periodically during the life of the loan, based on the fluctuation of an index. Lenders may charge a lower interest rate for the initial period of the loan. Most ARMs have a rate cap that limits the amount the interest rate can change, both in an adjustment period and over the life of the loan. Also called a variable-rate mortgage.

  • The gradual reduction in the principal amount owed on a debt. During the earlier years of the loan, most of each payment is applied toward the interest owed. During the final years of the loan, payment amounts are applied almost exclusively to the remaining principal.

  • The annual cost of a loan to a borrower. Like an interest rate, the APR is expressed as a percentage. Unlike an interest rate, however, it includes other charges or fees (such as mortgage insurance, most closing costs, discounts points and loan origination fees) to reflect the total cost of the loan. The Federal Truth in Lending Act requires that every consumer loan agreement disclose the APR. Since all lenders must follow the same rules to ensure the accuracy of the APR, borrowers can use the APR as a good basis for comparing the costs of similar credit transactions.

  • A refinance transaction in which the new loan amount exceeds the total of the principal balance of the existing first mortgage and any secondary mortgages or liens, together with closing costs and points for the new loan. This excess is usually given to the borrower in cash and can often be used for debt consolidation, home improvement or any other purpose.

  • The Close step is the date you will sign and execute your new loan documents.

    Depending on the location of the property or type of transaction, the three business days right of rescission period may apply before your funds are available to you.

    The three business days right of rescission period states that in certain real estate secured transactions that involve the refinance of a primary residence, the Truth in Lending Act allows applicants 3 business days to cancel the transaction and prohibits lenders from disbursing proceeds until after the rescission period has lapsed.

  • Closing costs, also known as settlement costs, are the costs incurred when obtaining your loan. For new purchases, these costs also include ownership transfer of any collateral property from the seller to you. Costs may include and are not limited to: attorney's fees, preparation and title search fees, discount points, appraisal fees, title insurance, and credit report charges. They are typically about 3% of your loan amount, and are often paid at closing or just before your loan closes.

    Funds often needed to close a loan, such as homeowners insurance, property taxes, and escrow impound account funds, aren't included in closing costs and are considered separate. You should be prepared to pay these costs before your loan closes.

  • The date you will sign your new loan documents.

  • An additional person who assumes equal responsibility for repayment of a loan and is fully obligated under the terms of the loan. This person also has equal rights to the proceeds of the loan.

  • A mortgage loan that has the standard features as defined by (and is eligible for sale to) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.

  • A short-term interim loan for financing the cost of home construction. The lender makes payments to the builder at periodic intervals as the work progresses.

  • A specified condition in a sales contract that must be satisfied before the home sale can occur. When buying a home, the 2 most common contingencies are that the house must pass inspection and that the borrower must be approved for a loan.

  • A home loan that is not insured or guaranteed by the federal government. A conventional loan can be for conforming or non-conforming loan amounts.

  • A second person who signs your loan and assumes equal responsibility for payment of the loan but receives no benefit from the loan proceeds.

  • The maximum amount you can borrow under a line of credit.

  • The likely ability of a borrower to repay debt.

  • Your total monthly debt payments (for example: loans, credit cards and court-ordered payments) divided by your gross monthly income before taxes and expressed as a percentage. Federal Housing Administration (FHA) guidelines in early 2017 recommend that your monthly mortgage payment should be no greater than 31% of your monthly income before taxes and your total monthly debt should be no greater than 43% of your monthly income before taxes.

  • Failure to make mortgage payments on time or to meet other terms of a loan. Default can lead to foreclosure.

  • The amount of cash you pay toward the purchase of your home to make up the difference between the purchase price and your mortgage loan. Down payments often range between 5% and 20% of the sales price depending on many factors, including your loan, your lender and your credit history. 

  • The period during which a borrower can obtain advances (also called draws) from an available line of credit. At the end of the draw period, borrowers may be able to renew the credit line or be required to pay the outstanding balance in full or in monthly installments.

  • The difference between the fair market value (appraised value) of your home and your outstanding mortgage balances and other liens.

  • Funds deposited with a third party, to be held until a specific date is reached and/or a specific condition is met.

F-J

  • The likely selling price of a home. The fair market value is usually determined by an appraisal.

  • An acronym for Fair Isaac Corporation, which develops the mathematical formulas used to produce credit scores for assessing credit risk. FICO scores fall between a low of 300 and a high of 850. The higher the FICO score, the lower credit risk a consumer presents. 

  • A home loan with a predetermined fixed interest rate for the entire term of the loan.

  • An option available on certain home equity lines of credit allowing borrowers to fix the payments and interest rate on a portion of their outstanding principal balance for a specific term. Customers may be charged a fee for this privilege.

  • Insurance that protects against loss due to floods. When available, this type of insurance is required by law when a property is located within a special flood hazard zone.

  • A legal procedure in which property securing a defaulted loan is sold by the lender in order to repay a borrower’s loan. The amount paid by a buyer at the foreclosure may not be enough to fully repay the loan and the borrower may continue to owe the lender the difference.

  • The date on which the proceeds from a loan are available to or disbursed for the benefit of the borrowers.

  • A line of credit secured by the borrower's residence. The typical HELOC term is 30 years: a 10-year draw period followed by a 20-year repayment period. A HELOC is often used for home improvements, debt consolidation or other major expenses. In most cases, you can withdraw funds up to your available credit limit for the first 10 years (your draw period) using convenience checks, debit cards or money transfer via Online Banking. 

  • Insurance to protect your home against damage from fire, hurricanes and other catastrophes. Usually, homeowners insurance also covers you against theft and vandalism, as well as personal liability in case someone is hurt or injured on your property. A lender will likely require you to name it as a payee under the insurance if you need to make a claim. Also called hazard insurance.

  • A loan that is repaid in equal payments, known as installments.

  • The annual cost of a loan to a borrower, usually expressed as a percentage. The interest rate does not include fees charged for the loan.

K-O

  • A person’s debts or financial obligations. Liabilities include long-term and short-term debt, as well as potential losses from legal claims.

  • The legal claim of a creditor on a borrower’s property, to be used as security for a debt.

  • An agreement by a lender to extend credit up to a maximum amount for a specified time. In a home equity line of credit, the line of credit is secured by the borrower’s home. 

  • The ratio between the unpaid principal amount of your loan, or your credit limit in the case of a line of credit, and the appraised value of your collateral. Expressed as a percentage. For example, if you have an $80,000 first mortgage on a property with an appraised value of $100,000, the LTV is 80% ($80,000 / $100,000 = 80%).

  • The day on which the outstanding principal, interest and fees on a loan must all be repaid.

  • A written agreement in which the signer promises to pay to a named person or company a specific sum of money at a specified date or on demand.

  • The date on which a loan is funded or disbursed.

P-T

  • Payment of the outstanding balance of a loan in full. Also, the amount required to pay the outstanding balance in full.

  • An amount paid to the lender, typically at closing, to lower (or buy down) the interest rate. One discount point equals one percentage point of the loan amount. For example, 2 points on a $100,000 mortgage would cost $2,000. Negative points indicate the amount to be credited at closing to reduce closing costs. Also called discount points or mortgage points.

  • A lender’s conditional agreement to lend a specific amount of money to a homebuyer under a specified set of terms. Premier Bank does not offer Preapproval Letters. 

  • An amount paid to reduce the principal balance of a loan before the principal is due.

  • The process of providing financial and other information (such as employment history and proposed collateral) by a prospective borrower in order for the lender to preliminarily estimate how much the borrower may obtain for the purchase of a home. A prequalification is not a commitment to lend.

  • The interest rate that banks charge their best customers when lending them money. The U.S. Prime Rate, as published daily by The Wall Street Journal, is based on a survey of the prime rates of the 10 largest banks in the United States. The U.S. Prime Rate is used by some financial institutions to calculate variable interest rates for credit cards. Changes in the U.S. Prime Rate influence changes in other rates, including mortgage interest rates.

  • The principal is the amount of money borrowed on a loan. The interest is the charge paid for borrowing money. Principal and interest account for the majority of your mortgage payment, which may also include escrow payments for property taxes, homeowners insurance, mortgage insurance and any other costs that are paid monthly, or fees that may come due.

  • The amount of interest on a loan, expressed as a percentage.

  • A commitment issued by a lender to a borrower guaranteeing a specific interest rate for a specified period of time. Rate lock periods are for a fixed number of days, and rate lock expiration occurs when that period has passed, subjecting the interest rate on the loan to market fluctuations since the date of the initial rate lock. When a rate lock expires, you will need to contact your lending specialist to establish a new rate lock prior to closing your loan.

  • Paying off your existing loan with the proceeds from a new loan, generally using the same property as collateral, in order to take advantage of lower monthly payments, lower interest rates or save on financing costs.

  • Loans for which the borrower gives the lender a lien on property such as an automobile, boat, other personal property or real estate that will serve as collateral for the loan.
    A person or entity that conducts the settlement to transfer title of the property and to close on the mortgage loan.  
  • The number of years it will take to pay off a loan. The loan term is used to determine the payment amount, repayment schedule and total interest paid over the life of the loan.

U-Z

  • The person who approves or denies a home loan, based on the lender’s underwriting and approval criteria.

  • Typically used when referring to a loan or a line of credit (unsecured loan, unsecured line of credit) that is not backed by collateral.

  • Typically used when referring to a loan or a line of credit (unsecured loan, unsecured line of credit) that is not backed by collateral.

  • An interest rate that may fluctuate or change periodically, often in relation to an index such as the prime rate or other criteria. Payments may increase or decrease accordingly.

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